Urbanisation, Urban Population, Rural-Urban Migration, Poverty, Standard of Living
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PROJECT TOPIC  : THE IMPLICATION OF URBANISATION ON THE STANDARD OF LIVING ON THE URBAN POPULATION (A Case Study of Ajegunle in Lagos)

PROJECT PROPOSAL/CHAPTER ONE

1.1 INTRODUCTION
By birth or through rural-urban migration, the poor of the world are increasingly concentrating in cities, both large and small. It is expected that very soon the majority of mankind will live in cities. By definition, cities are spatial concentrations of people and their economic and social activities, other than primarily agricultural. They are therefore both a concentration of poverty and wealth, and problems as well as solutions. Urbanisation takes place in the whole world, in poor and affluent regions alike. But in the poorer ones, urban growth is the strongest, nearly half of it caused by migration of poor peasants to the cities.

In human history and all over the world, urbanisation is a natural phenomenon, wherever agriculture produces a surplus to feed non-agricultural workers. Important pull factors are economic growth in cities and the possibilities this provides for employment, even when for many migrants these possibilities do not materialise, or only after a few generations. Both prosperity and crisis can generate urban growth. Spurred by the oil boom prosperity of the 1970s and the massive improvements in roads and the availability of vehicles, Nigeria since independence has become an increasingly urbanised and urban-oriented society.

Lagos, Nigeria’s largest city, which also contains 85% of the country’s industrial activity, is one of the fastest growing cities in the world - its annual growth rate was estimated at almost 14% during the 1970s, when the massive extent of new construction was exceeded only by the influx of migrants attracted by the booming prosperity. Its current population is estimated at around 10 million. By 2020, it will be the third biggest city in the world. Five other cities have populations of more than one million. Aside from Lagos, the most rapid recent rates of urbanisation have been around Port Harcourt in the Niger Delta region, which was at the heart of the oil boom, and generally throughout the Igbo and other areas of the southeast.

Despite the recent dramatic pace of urbanisation, the incidence of poverty remains higher in rural than urban areas. Wage differentials alone do not fully explain the reasons for migration to urban areas. Another major factor leading to rural-urban migration has been the neglect of infrastructure in rural areas. Many people have moved to urban areas for better economic or educational opportunities due to a lack of markets, good transportation facilities, schools, and health facilities. Difficulties in agricultural areas, including scarcity of land, declining crop yields, poor harvests and soil erosion, also partly explain rural-urban migration.

Projections suggest that the number of people living in Nigeria's towns and cities will reach 100 million by 2020. Although the urban population growth rate is now declining (it has fallen steadily from 5.7% in 1985 to current rates of 4.0%), it is still far higher than Nigeria’s overall population growth rate.
As well as rural-urban migration, other forms of population movement observed in Nigeria have included the following:
• Rural to rural migration is an important feature linking different areas of the country. Some activities, such as palm or rubber tapping, lumbering, trading in farm produce, or working as hired labour, require regular movement between rural areas. Improvement of country’s road networks has been important in stimulating the scale of seasonal labour migration. For example, it has become feasible for Hausa and other northern workers to come south to work as hired labourers in the cocoa belt and elsewhere at the onset of the rains and later return to their home villages in time to plant their own crops.
• Surveys have found that even though rural-urban migration may be on the increase, the simultaneous growth of urban-type income generating activities in the rural areas has succeeded in reducing the volume of migration to the cities.
• As well as trends of rural-urban migration, there is also growing evidence of increasing urban-rural migration - including not only returned people, but also younger people. A number of factors, many of which were exacerbated by the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP), initiated in 1986, account for return migration, including disillusionment with urban conditions, declining business fortunes, loss of work, serious ill-health, congestion, as well as increasing returns to agricultural production brought about by the liberalisation of agricultural prices.

1.2 RESEARCH PROBLEM
The problem of this research is:
to identify the extent to which high rate of urbanization has affected the standard of living of people living in urban areas particularly in Ajegunle area of Lagos.

Available data reveal that Nigeria’s urban population has been growing at an alarming rate. Nigerian towns and cities are exploding - growing in leaps and bounds. A little more than 50 years ago, fewer than 7% of Nigerians lived in urban centres (that is, settlements with populations of 20 000 or more). This proportion rose to 10% in 1952 and 19.2% in 1963. It is now estimated at about 55%. In fact, Nigerian cities are among the fastest growing in the world.

Mainly political and economic factors have been responsible for this rapid growth in urban population in Nigeria. The colonial era influenced the growth and pattern of urbanistion in many ways, including the creation of new towns, principally along the transportation routes and at the ports and mining camps; modernisation of the physical structures of existing towns; introduction of modern utilities; and changes in the economic base that led to the emergence of modern commercial–industrial centres outside the traditional town centres. The created state level of government has had perhaps the most significant impact by introducing new poles of political and economic growth. Consequent on all these pull factors in towns and cities, the city centres became attractive and rural–urban migration began to occur on a vast scale.

The problems and challenges posed by this rapid urban growth are immense. Very frightening and perhaps more easily observable are the human and environmental poverty, the declining quality of life, and the untapped wealth of human resources that they represent. Housing and associated facilities (water, electricity, etc.) are similarly inadequate, such that millions now live in substandard and subhuman environments, plagued by slums, squalor, and similarly inadequate social amenities, such as schools and health and recreational facilities. The gradual decline of social values and the breakdown of family cohesiveness and community spirit have resulted in increased levels of juvenile delinquency and crime.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This research work has been structured to answer the following research questions:
1. What has been the trend of urbanisation in Nigeria over the years?
2. What are the factors that are responsible for urbanisation in Nigeria?
3. What are the major consequences of urbanization in Nigeria?
4. How has urbanization impacted on the living standard of the people in the urban centres
5. How could the problem associated with urbanization solved?

RESEARCH PREPOSITIONS
Based on the research problem discussed and the research questions raised above, the following research prepositions are hereby put forwards and would be tested in the course of the study:

PREPOSITION I
That urbanization has affected the living standard of the people in Nigeria because significant changes have been witnessed at the urban centres.
PREPOSITION II
That urbanization is responsible for the social vices in the cities of Nigeria.
PREPOSITION III
That there has been significant changes in urbanization trend and pattern in Nigeria.
PREPOSITION IV
That some factors are responsible for urbanization in Nigeria.
PREPOSITION V
That urbanization is responsible for the significant changes that have been witnessed in both rural and urban centres of Nigeria.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main aim of this study is to examine the impact of urbanization on the standard of living of people in the urban centers in Nigeria. In achieving this task, the objectives of the study could be stated specifically as follows:
(i) assessing the trend of urbanisation in Nigeria;
(ii) examining the push and pull factors that are responsible for urbanization in Nigeria;
(iii) identifying the consequences of urbanisation in both the rural and urban areas;
(iv) examining the impact of urbanisation on the standard of living of the people in urban centres with special reference to the residents in Ajegunle in Lagos State;

1.4 METHODOLOGY
Information and data for this study were sourced from both secondary and primary sourced. The secondary data were collected from textbooks, articles, journals, bulletin, reports and other publications. The primary data were sourced through the survey research method, interviews and participant observation, which involved the gathering of information from respondents concerning their opinions on the causes and consequences of urbanization in Nigeria. The questionnaire focused more on respondents’ living standard in the slum. The questionnaire was well-structured such that it would be divided into two sections; the first section shall source for the personal information of the respondents, while the second section shall focus on questions that relate to the subject matter. The questionnaire used was carefully administered and a total of three hundred (300) respondents were selected for the purpose of this analysis. The sampling was done randomly such that the respondents cut across different spheres of life in Ajegunle, Lagos State.

The questionnaires were administered by the respondents at their respective homes. In the case where the respondent is not learned, the researcher administered the questionnaire at the instance of the respondent. The filled questionnaires were collected immediately from the respondents to avoid misplacement. The data, which were collected from the questionnaire, were analysed using tables, simple percentage method and chi-square, goodness of fit.
The study population includes the residents in Ajegunle area of Araromi Ifelodun Local Government area in Lagos State, who have migrated to the state from different parts of the country preferably their villages. There are no recent statistics for the number of residents in Ajegunle.
A Multi-staged sampling technique was used to select the respondents. The first stage is the selection of Ajegunle area of Araromi Ifelodun Local Government area. The method used was purposive because of my knowledge of the place.

The second stage is the division of area into streets. Ten streets were selected randomly in the area and they include: Olowu street, Aina street, Odulanru street, Oladipo Olabinjo street, Suenu street, Adebola street, Yusuf Sanusi street, Ajisegiri Street, Alimi oke street and Arowojobe street.
The fourth stage is the selection of houses and on each street, every other house is selected. In each house, five individuals were selected based on availability and if they qualified for inclusion in the study (i.e if they have migrated to the city from their villages).

1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research work begins by examining the trend of urbanization in Nigeria since the discovery
of oil in the 70s. Urbanisation trend was examined in decades starting from 1971-1980, 1981-1990 etc. the major causes of urbanization were identified in each of the decades. The factors that are responsible for urbanization shall be examined under the push factors and the pull factors. The push factors are those factors that are making people to leave the rural areas while the pull factors are the factors that are attracting people to the urban centre.

As a follow up to this, the consequences of urbanization were discussed both in the urban centres and the rural areas. Its impact on the county at large shall also be discussed. The impact of urbanization on the standard of living in the urban centers was given priority attention with special focus on Ajegunle in Lagos. The standard of living of the people in the area was viewed in terms of the housing condition, portable water supply, access to health services, recreational facilities, income per family size, livelihood sources, environmental condition etc.

The study shall also examine the government’s present and past efforts at controlling urbanization and improving the lots of the people both in the urban centres and rural areas. This would serve as the yardstick for making recommendations on the basis of the research findings.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Developing countries are experiencing a rapid rate of urbanisation. This is manifested more in Africa where the average annual growth rates were estimated by the United Nations as 4.7% and 4.6% between the period 1960 and 1980, and 1980 and 2000 respectively. The growth rate of urban population is more pronounced in Nigeria than most other countries in the African continent. The number of urban centres in Nigeria has risen drastically in the last one hundred years. The resultant effect has been the formation of more urban centres, which are densely populated. Studies have shown that the rapid rate of urbanisation in Nigeria and the consequential explosion of urban population have not been matched by a corresponding commensurate change in social, economic and technological development (Mabogunje, 1968).

The economy of the country in which urbanisation is taking place has been described as stagnant and the growth of industrialization is negligible (Salau, 1992). The provision of public infrastructure and social services has suffered neglect, and the process of urban planning and zoning has been slow or stagnant in many cases. Population growth has outpaced the rate of housing provision. Consequently there is the preponderance of the large proportion of urban dwellers living in housing and environmental conditions that are clearly an affront to human dignity. These are often in low wage employment and a sizeable proportion of the population are unemployed. They engage in untoward activities, which are encouraged by the poor economic and physical conditions they are exposed to, their housing conditions being the major contributory factor.

In the light of the foregoing, this research work shall contribute to existing literature on the subject matter by examining the trend of urbanisation in Nigeria and make a critical analysis on its impact of the standard of living of the people. It is hoped that the study would assist the government to know the critical conditions of the people in the slums and make adequate provision to improve their living standard since it is their right.

1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
One of the major limitations of this study is that the period of time given by the institution’s authority for the study would not allow for an in-depth coverage of all the issues connected with the topic under study, and collection of related information.

Also, certain data required in order to highlight and analyze some observation may not be accessible. Besides, the responses of the respondents may not be completely reliable and as such may affect the policy implications that would be presented in the concluding comment.

1.8 CHAPTER ORGANISATION
This research work commences by providing a background of the subject matter justifying the need for the study as contained in chapter one. Chapter two relate to literature and theoretical framework concerning urbanization and its consequences. The research method is outlined in chapter three while the responses of the respondents were presented and discussed in chapter four. Concluding comments in chapter five reflects on limitations of the study and identify the implications of the findings.

 

 

PROJECT PROPERTIES
Number of Chapters
5
Number of Pages
114
Number of Words
18,792
Number of References
36
Project Level
B.Sc.
Price
N10,000
Abstract, Sample of Questionnaire are included
How to Pay for this Project . . . .CLICK HERE

Keywords: urbanisation, urban population, rural-urban migration, standard of living

 

 

 

 

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